This Brief focuses on three themes related to the operationalisation of inclusiveness in peacebuilding. The first theme looks at the various practical obstacles to inclusiveness including, for instance, the resistance of governments, international donors and armed groups to include a wider range of actors. The second theme highlights the importance of so-called ‘untouchables’ – groups or individuals targeted by sanctions or anti-terror legislation, or ostracised through public stigmatisation. The third theme touches on marginalised groups, such women and youth, as a distinct challenge for inclusive processes. In all three themes, the Brief draws on examples from Central America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.